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 Multiple Choice

1. Which one of the following assertions is true? Galton’s notion of the ‘normal distribution’ tells us:

a) That if your IQ score is anywhere on the distribution, then you are normal.
b) That as we consider scores increasingly higher or lower than the norm, there will be more and more people registering those scores.
c) That for any of our ‘natural gifts’ (physical, temperamental or intellectual) there will be an ‘average’ amount of that feature, to which most people approximate.
d) That most people who complete a university degree will be at the lower end of the distribution.

2. Galton introduced the idea of correlation (or co-relation) and showed which of the following to be true?

a) A correlation of −1 indicates that there is no relationship between the two variables being considered.
b) Correlations should only be used with variables that are normally distributed.
c) If variable A (e.g. height) shows a correlation with variable B (e.g. weight) of +1.0, then we know that A caused B.
d) IQ was correlated with job performance.

3. In the early stages of measuring intelligence, which type of intelligence did Spearman identify as the underlying feature that contributes to performance across a variety of different tasks?

a) Perceptual speed
b) Individual IQ
c) Crystallized intelligence
d) General intelligence (g)
e) Inductive reasoning

4. Binet was the first psychologist to specify that intelligence tests must be:

  1. Administered and scored in a careful and standardized manner if comparisons between children’s performance are to be valid and reliable.
  2. Presented in the same order to all children and in order of increasing difficulty so that each child can pass as many tests as possible.
  3. Difficult, to ensure that only intelligent people pass them.
  4. Administered in a one-to-one setting and only where the examiner has first established a friendly rapport with the child.
a) 1,2,3
b) 2,3
c) 1,2,4
d) 3,4

5. Which is the case? IQ is calculated as:

a) The speed at which we process a piece of information.
b) The ratio of mental age to chronological age.
c) The number of items you get correct on an intelligence test.
d) How intelligent you are compared to an adult of the same gender.

6. Which one of the following is most likely to be true? A person with an IQ of 100 is:

a) Unlikely to be able to finish high school.
b) Unable to get a driving licence.
c) Likely to have trouble completing a university degree.
d) More intelligent than a person with an IQ of 120.

7. Evidence obtained from measures of reaction time, inspection time and physiological changes suggests that general intelligence has a ___________ basis.

a) Biological
b) Social
c) Cognitive
d) Cultural
e) Racial

8. It is generally accepted that there is such a thing as general intelligence. So which of the following statements is true?

a) Some people have general intelligence, others have multiple intelligences.
b) The only people who do not have general intelligence are those that have IQs less than 100.
c) General intelligence develops by adulthood.
d) General intelligence can be thought of as ‘mental energy’ that is applied to all tasks that we attempt.

9. All of the following represent intelligences from Gardner’s theory of multiple intelligences except for ___________.

a) Bodily-kinesthetic
b) Cultural
c) Musical
d) Naturalist
e) Personal

10. Mental retardation is represented by which of the following characteristics?

a) Low general intelligence
b) Slow on-line processing
c) A known organic etiology
d) IQ below 70
e) All of the above

11. Which model assumes that the savant syndrome represents selective brain damage by which some modules were spared whereas others were not?

a) Sternberg’s triarchic theory
b) Fluid intelligence
c) Minimal cognitive architecture
d) Information-processing
e) Cognitive components

12. IQ test scores represent __________ measures of intelligence.

a) Genotypic
b) Environmental
c) Modular
d) Phenotypic
e) General

13. By measuring the extent to which identical twins reared together score differently on intelligence tests, researchers can determine the influence of which factors on intelligence?

a) Shared environments
b) Non-shared environments
c) Shared and non-shared environments
d) Genetic traits
e) All of the above

14. Flynn has shown that there has been a standard deviation increase, per generation, in the mean level of intelligence test performance for most of this century in Western society, which equates to about three IQ points per decade. He believes that such a difference has to be the result of which one of the following?

a) An environmental change, because gene frequencies in populations couldn't change so quickly.
b) Improvements in the gene pool as we evolve.
c) A statistical artefact.
d) None of the above.

15. Detterman believes that:

a) General intelligence represents an average of the processing of several independent components that contribute to the performance of any complex task.
b) There is a single ability common to all tasks and that differences in this single ability between individuals give rise to differences in ‘general’ intelligence.
c) There is no such thing as general intelligence
d) All of the above.

16. Anderson argues three of the following – but which ONE is NOT in line with his arguments?

a) The first route to knowledge is through thought (central processes).
b) The ‘thought’ route to knowledge is unrelated to individual differences in IQ.
c) Thoughtful problem solving can be done either by verbalizing a problem (using language-like propositions to think) or by visualizing it (using visuo-spatial representations to think).
d) We need two different kinds of knowledge acquisition routines, each generated by one of two specific processors.

17. The measured difference in IQ between African Americans and white Americans is most likely to be due to which one of the following factors?

a) Bias in testing.
b) Genetics.
c) Environmental differences.
d) Lack of effort.

18. What explanations have been given to challenge the widely publicized, yet grossly inaccurate, claim that differences in IQ scores between black and white Americans are due to genetic differences in intelligence?

a) Disadvantaged social groups are treated differently
b) Socio-economic status provides different opportunities
c) IQ tests are biased against minority groups
d) (a), (b) and (c)
e) No one has challenged the race-IQ claims

19. Estimates of heritability for intelligence range between __________.

a) 25% to 35%
b) 50% to 60%
c) 50% to 80%
d) 0% to 100%
e) 40% to 80%

20. Which are the most widely used individual tests of intelligence?

a) Wechsler tests
b) Stanford-Binet tests
c) IQ tests
d) Reaction time tests
e) Spearman’s g



Copyright 2005 BPS Blackwell