The synthesis of Darwinian evolution by natural selection and Mendel's Laws of Heredity has become known as neo-Darwinism.
This 'modern synthesis' was put together by in the 1920s and 1930s, and provides the basis of most subsequent work on evolution. Among leading figures in development of neo-Darwinism were Fisher, Haldane and Wright.
The philosopher and historian of biology, Helena Cronin explains the importance of the modern synthesis.
The image opposite is of Charles Darwin (1809-1882), painted in 1840. His insights are still essential to neo-Darwinism as practised today.