Multiple Choice Questions
1) In childhood disorders there are different types of problems such as Symptom-Based Disorders. One such disorder is known as enuresis, which means:
2) In childhood disorders there are different types of problems such as Symptom-Based Disorders. One such disorder is known as encopresis, which means:
3) In childhood disorders there are different types of problems such as Symptom-Based Disorders. One such disorder is known as somnambulism, which means:
4) Which of the following is an area of psychology that is concerned with mapping how early childhood experiences may act as risk factors for later diagnosable psychological disorders, and attempts to describe the pathways by which early experiences may generate adult psychological problems?
5) Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a childhood disorder known as:
6) Which of the following are risk factors for childhood psychiatric disorders?
7) Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies of the brains of individuals with ADHD have revealed a number of significant differences between ADHD sufferers and nonsufferers (e.g. Krain & Castellanos, 2006; Seidman, Valera & Makris, 2005). Evidence suggests that the brains of children with ADHD are smaller than those of healthy comparison children, with overall brain volume being smaller by an average of?
8) Children with ADHD are known to have deficits in which of the following brain areas?
9) Children with ADHD are known to have deficits in executive functioning, and specifically have difficulty inhibiting responses. Which of the following brain areas normally controls these types of functions?
10) Which of the following is an area of the brain that regularly exhibits abnormalities in association with ADHD symptoms?
11) The term Theory of mind refers to which of the following abilities?
12) Which of the following characteristics are present in conduct disorder?
13) Another disruptive behaviour disorder outlined in DSM-IV-TR is known as Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD). ODD is a diagnosis usually reserved for those children who do not meet the full criteria for conduct disorder, but display which of the following?
14) Aggressive children also exhibit what is called a "hostile attributional bias" (Naseby, Hayden & DePaulo, 1979), where they will interpret ambiguous cues as signalling hostility, but also many cues which are generated by benign intentions. Once a hostile attribution is made, studies also suggest that the probability of an aggressive response is at what percent?
15) When children are exposed to uncertainty and stress early in their lives they may experience a range of emotions, including rejection, fear, confusion, anger, hatred, and misery. Consequently the individual may become withdrawn and inward-looking. This is known as:
16) Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) is now recognised as a relatively common anxiety disorder found in childhood, with the main features of the disorder in children manifesting as intrusive, repetitive thoughts, obsessions and compulsions. In children, the most common obsession themes in children are:
17) According to Tracey, Chorpita, Douban & Barlow (1997), childhood Generalised Anxiety Disorder is differentiated from other forms of childhood anxiety due to being associated with significantly increased levels of:
18) Epidemiological studies have differed in their estimates of GAD in childhood populations. A UK study estimated the occurrence of Generalised Anxiety Disorder in less than what percentage of 5-10 yr olds?
19) Lichtenstein & Annas (2000) estimated the prevalence for specific phobias in 8-9 year-olds to be around what percentage for boys?
20) In early childhood, depression will manifest as clingy behaviour, school refusal and exaggerated fears. It is also associated with an increased frequency of somatic complaints, such as stomach aches and headaches. Which of the following percentage of adolescents up to 19 years of age will have experienced a diagnosable episode of depression?
21) DSM-IV-TR defines enuresis as the repeated, usually involuntary voiding of urine during the day or at night into either bed or clothes. To qualify for a diagnosis, the voiding of urine must occur at least twice a week for at least 3 months, and the child must be at least 5-years of age. Enuresis can be divided into primary and secondary. Which of the following describes secondary enuresis?
22) According to von Gontard, Hollman, Eiberg, Benden et al. (1997), secondary nocturnal enuresis is frequently associated with a higher incidence of which of the following factors?
23) Which is the most common form of stimulant medication for ADHD?
24) Which of the following is a widely-used classical conditioning method for treating nocturnal enuresis?
25) Which of the following is behaviour technique that has been successfully adapted to treat anxiety-based problems in children?
26) According to Fabiano, Pelham, Manos, Gnagy et al. (2004), an effective means of reducing disruptive behaviours including aggressiveness, destruction of property, and non-compliance in the classroom is?
27) According to Kazdin & Weisz (2003), teaching parents to identify and reward positive behaviour also helps to prevent parents from focussing on the negative and disruptive behaviours exhibited by children with both ADHD and conduct disorder. This can be achieved through:
28) Which of the following interventions is based on the view that childhood problems result from inappropriate family structure and organisation?
29) Which of the following teaches parents a range of techniques for controlling and managing their children's symptoms, especially with children diagnosed with conduct disorder?
30) Which of the following is a technique that can be used with younger children who are less able to communicate and express their feelings verbally?