Table 4. Standard abbreviations for semi-systematic or trivial names. These abbreviations may be used without definition.

Abbreviation Name
ADP-Rib adenosine(5')diphospho(5)-b-D-ribose
AIDS acquired immunodeficiency syndrome
AMP, ADP and ATPa adenosine 5'-phosphate, 5'-diphosphate and 5'-triphosphate
Boc butyloxycarbonyl
bp base pairs
BSA bovine serum albumin
cAMP adenosine 3',5'-phosphate
CD circular dichroism
Chaps 3-[(3-chloamidopropyl)dimethylammonio]-1-1propanesulfonic acid
CMP, CDP and CTP a cytidine 5'-phosphate, 5'-diphosphate and 5'-triphosphate
CoA(or CoASH) coenzyme A
CoASAc acetyl-coenzyme A
COSY correlation spectroscopy
1D/2D/3D one-, two- and three-dimensional
DEAE-cellulose O-(diethylaminoethyl)-cellulose
DNA, cDNA, mtDNA, nDNA,
snDNA, ssDNA. dsDNA
decoxyribonucleic acid, complementary DNA, mitochondrial DNA, nuclear DNA,
small nuclear DNA, single-stranded DNA, double-stranded DNA
DQF double quantum-filtered
EDTA ethylenediaminetetraacetate
EGTA [ethylenebis(oxonitrilo)]tetraacetic acid
ELISA enzyme-linked immunoabsorbant assay
EPR electron paramagnetic resonance
ESI electro spray ionization
ESR electron spin resonance
FAD flavin-adenine dinucleotide
FMN riboflavin 5'-phosphate
Fmoc fluoren-9-ylmethoxycarbonyl
FPLC fast protein liquid chromatography
FT Fourier transform
FTIR Fourier transform infra red
GC gas chromatography
GLC gas-liquid chromatography
GMP, GDP and GTPa guanosine 5'-phosphate, 5'-diphosphate and 5'-triphosphate
Hb, HbCO and HbO2 haemoglobin, carbon-monoxide haemoglobin, and oxyhaemoglobin
HIV human immunodeficiency virus
HMQC heteronuclear multiple quantum coherence
HOHAHA homonuclear Hartmann–Hahn spectroscopy
HPLC high performance liquid chromatography
HPTLC high performance thin-layer chromatography
IEF isoelectric focussing
IgA, etc. immunoglobulin A, etc.
IMP, IDP and ITPa inosine 5'-phosphate, 5'-diphosphate
IR infra red
kb 103 bases
mAb monoclonal antibody
Mb, MbCO and.MbO2 myoglobin, carbon-monoxide myoglobin, and oxymyoglobin
MALDI matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization
MALDI-TOF matrix-assisted laser-desorption ionization-time of flight
MS mass spectrometry
NAD, NAD+ and NADH nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide and its oxidized and reduced forms
NADP, NADP+ and NADPH nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide phosphate and its oxidized and reduced forms
NMN nicotinamide mononucleotide
NMP, NDP and NTPa unspecified nucleoside 5'-phosphate, 5'-diphosphate and 5'-triphosphate
NMR nuclear magnetic resonance
NOE nuclear Overhauser enhancement
NOESY NOE spectroscopy
ORF open reading frame
PAGE polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis
PCR polymerase chain reaction
poly(A), etc. (3'-5')poly(adenylic acid), etc.
RACE rapid amplification of cDNA ends
RIA radioimmunaassay
rmsd root-mean-square deviation
RNA, hnRNA, mRNA,
mtRNA, nRNA, rRNA and tRNA
ribonucleic acid, heterogeneous nuclear RNA, messenger RNA,
mitochondrial RNA, nuclear RNA, ribosomal RNA and transfer RNA
RNP ribonucleoprotein
ROESY rotating Overhauser effect spectroscopy
RP-HPLC reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography
RT-PCR reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction
SDS sodium dodecyl sulfate
TLC thin-layer chromatography
TMP, TDP and TTPa ribosylthymine 5'-phosphate, 5'-diphosphate and 5'-triphosphate
TOCSY total correlation spectroscopy
U unit
UDP-Glc uridine(5')diphospho(l)-a-D-glucose
UMP, UDP and UTPa uridine 5'-phosphate, 5'-diphosphate, and 5'-triphosphate
UTR untranslated region
UV ultraviolet
XMP, XDP and XTPa xanthosine 5'-phosphate, 5'-diphosphate and 5'-triphosphateb
aThe d prefix may be used to represent the corresponding deoxyribonucleoside phosphates, e.g. dADP. The various isomers may be written 2'NMP, 3'NMP or 5'NMP (in case of possible ambiguity).
bThe thymidine derivatives, containing deoxyribose, should be written dTMP, dTDP and dTTP, respectively.