Figures

Figure 20.6   The evolution of the horses has been interpreted as a simple one-way trend towards large size, single toes and deep teeth. The reality is more complex: horse evolution has followed a branching pattern, and the line to the modern horses, Equus, was not preordained: notice the diversity of North American horses in the late Miocene and Pliocene. The evolutionary steps did not all occur in parallel: Merychippus was a grazing horse, with deep-rooted teeth, but retained a three-toed foot. (Based on MacFadden 1992, and other sources.)

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