Figure 18.4   Cladogram showing the postulated relationships among the major groups of vascular land plants. Some synapomorphies that defi ne particular nodes are: Chlorobionta (chlorophyll b), Charophyceae + Embryophyta (cell structure), Embryophyta (alternation of generations), Tracheophyta (vascular canals (tracheids) and secondary thickening) and Spermatopsida (seeds). Read more about the “deep green” project to establish a complete phylogeny of green plants at

← Back