Figure 18.22   The coevolution of fl oral structures and of pollinating insects during the entire span of the Cretaceous and the early part of the Tertiary. Some of the major fl oral types are (a) small simple fl owers, (b) fl owers with numerous parts, (c) small unisexual fl owers, (d) fl owers with parts arranged in whorls of fi ve, (e) fl owers with petals, sepals and stamens inserted above the ovary, (f) fl owers with fused petals, (g) bilaterally symmetric fl owers, (h) brush-type fl owers, and (i) deep funnelshaped fl owers. Pollinating insects include (j) beetles, (k) fl ies, (l) moths and butterfl ies, and (mq) various groups of wasps and bees: (m) Symphyta, (n) Sphecidae, (o) Vespoidea, (p) Meliponinae, and (q) Anthophoridae. (Based on information in Friis et al. 1987.)

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