Figure 7.8   The possible chain of events following the eruption of the Siberian Traps, 251 Ma. Volcanism pumps carbon dioxide (CO2) into the atmosphere and this causes global warming. Global warming leads to reduced circulation and reduced upwelling in the oceans, which produces anoxia, productivity decline and extinction in the sea. Gas hydrates may have released methane (CH4) which produced further global warming in a “runaway greenhouse” scenario (shaded gray). (Courtesy of Paul Wignall.)

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