Figure 7.12   Disaster taxa after the end-Permian mass extinction: the brachiopod Lingula (a), and the bivalves Claraia (b), Eumorphotis (c), Unionites (d) and Promyalina (e). These were some of the few species to survive the end-Permian crisis, and they dominated the black anoxic seabed mudstones for many thousands of years after the event.

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