Figure 6.12   Finite element analysis of the skull of Tyrannosaurus rex. The skull (a) was converted into a cell mesh (b), and biting forces applied (c). In the stress visualization (c), high stresses are indicated by pale colors, low stresses by black. Each bite, depending on its strength and location, sends stress patterns through the skull mesh and these allow the paleobiologist to understand the construction of the skull, but also the maximum forces possible before the structure fails. (Courtesy of Emily Rayfi eld.)

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