Figure 6.11   Basic mechanical models for biological structures. There are different kinds of levers in use in everyday appliances, and these styles may be seen in biological structures. (a) In a class 1 lever the effort and load are on opposite sides of the fulcrum. (b, c) In class 2 and 3 levers the effort and load are on the same side of the fulcrum, with the effort furthest away in a class 2 lever (b), and closest in a class 3 lever (c).

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