Figure 5.11   Relationships of the woolly mammoth based on mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). This analysis (Rogaev et al. 2006) places the mammoth Mammuthus primigenius closest to the Asiatic elephant Elephas maximus, while other analyses of mammoth mtDNA place the mammoth closer to the African elephant Loxodonta africana. Either way, the relationship to the modern elephants is close, suggesting all three species diverged in the last 56 myr. Two samples of mtDNA for the two modern elephants are included, and the outgroups are the sea cow Dugong dugon and the hyrax Procavia capensis. The sets of digits at each branching point are various measures of robustness: values range from 0 to 1 and 0 to 100, with 1.0 and 100% indicating maximum robustness of the node. Scale bar is 0.1 base-pair substitutions per site. (Courtesy of Evgeny Rogaev.)

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