Innate immunomodulating therapies
Abstract number: S73
The innate immune system assumes an essential role in the natural host defences against microbes. Sensing of microbial pathogens, either in tissue in contact with the host's environment or in the systemic circulation after invasion of the bloodstream, is carried out by macrophages, dendritic cells, natural killer cells, granulocytes and monocytes acting as sentinels of the innate immune system. Recognition of invasive pathogens by immune cells relies on their capacity to detect microbial molecular motifs, such as endotoxin, peptidoglycan subcomponents, lipopeptides, glucans, mannans, flagellin and nucleic acids via microbial-recognition receptors. Microbe-associated molecular motifs bind to a family of microbial recognition molecules expressed by immune and non-immune cells, including CD14, Toll-like receptors, peptidoglycan-recognition proteins, nucleotide-binding oligomerisation domain-like receptors, helicase-domain-containing like receptors, such as retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I) or melanoma-differentiation-associated gene 5 (Mda5), C-type lectin receptors (such as dectin-1) and the triggering receptors expressed on myeloid cells (TREM) receptor family. Ligand-activated receptors turn on signal transduction pathways and the transcription of immune genes resulting in the expression of co-stimulatory molecules at the cell surface and in the release of immunoregulatory effector molecules in the extracellular compartment. Until recently increased knowledge of the pathophysiological basis of sepsis did not translate into clinical benefit. Lately, however, several treatment approaches have for the first time yielded encouraging, albeit still arguable results (i.e. early-goal directed therapy, activated protein C, hydrocortisone therapy, and intensive insulin therapy). New immunomodulating therapies targeting components of the innate immune system, such as TLR4, are currently underway.
|Session name:||18th European Congress of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases|
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